Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 2 - 26 m (Ref. 33616). Subtropical; 10°S - 45°S
Eastern Indian Ocean: southern Australia, from Western Australia to Victoria, New South Wales, including Tasmania.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2156); max. reported age: 14 years (Ref. 2156)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Occur in inshore waters (Ref. 9563). Most active at night, lying motionless during the day. Spawn during August-September and seem to be triggered by an increase in water temperature at the onset of spring. Smaller individuals feed mainly on shrimps and crabs, while bigger ones are piscivorous (Ref. 2156). Adults possess venomous infraorbital, preopercular and dorsal-fin spines (Ref. 33616).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Neira, F.J., A.G. Miskiewicz and T. Trnski, 1998. Larvae of temperate Australian fishes: laboratory guide for larval fish identification. University of Western Australia Press. 474 p. (Ref. 33616)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.9 - 22.9, mean 17.9 °C (based on 356 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.12; tm=2-4; tmax=14).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (55 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 147 [63, 361] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.44 [0.81, 2.87] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.5 [15.0, 18.0] % ; Omega3 = 1.08 [0.42, 3.04] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.9 [10.1, 64.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 39.3 [11.0, 136.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.33 [0.79, 2.27] mg/100g (wet weight);