Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 140 - 367 m (Ref. 4787), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 29°N - 23°S, 111°E - 140°W (Ref. 5222)
Pacific Ocean: western Pacific to French Polynesia. Reported as Epinephelus truncatus from French Polynesia by Bagnis et al. (1972, Ref. 4821).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222)
Inhabits deep waters on rocky substrata. One of the most common deepwater groupers caught with handlines at the Marianas.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.2 - 21.4, mean 15.9 °C (based on 69 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00650 - 0.01937), b=3.07 (2.93 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 9.78 [4.71, 22.00] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.224 [0.113, 0.420] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.0, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.209 [0.109, 0.407] g/100g ; Selenium = 11.5 [4.5, 24.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 54.5 [11.6, 293.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.483 [0.298, 0.776] mg/100g (wet weight);