Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 22 - 103 m (Ref. 5222), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 39°N - 34°S, 114°E - 155°E (Ref. 5222)
Western Pacific: Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, off eastern Australia (between 25°S-32°S), and off the coast of Western Australia (south of 19°30'S).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 68.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222)
soft rays: 9 - 12. Distinguished by the following characteristics: dark brown or violet-black body color, darker fins; oval body, compressed, depth contained 2.4-2.7 times in the standard length; head length 3.0-3.4 times in SL; distinctly convex dorsal head profile; nostrils subequal in juveniles, diameter of posterior nostrils twice that of anterior nostrils in 56 cm SL adults; small mouth, oblique, pair of short canines at front of each premaxilla (Ref. 89707).
An anti-tropical species. Occurs on rocky or soft (silty-sand or mud) bottoms. The young have been observed to feed on zooplankton in the water column; feeding of adults has not yet been discovered.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.9 - 25.7, mean 23.7 °C (based on 53 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00545 - 0.02310), b=3.05 (2.89 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 6.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .