Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Smiliogastrinae
Etymology: Enteromius: Greek, enteron = intestine + Greek, myo, mys = muscle (Ref. 45335). More on author: Peters.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.8 - 7.8; dH range: 5 - 25; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 19°C - 28°C (Ref. 13614); 10°S - 32°S
Africa: ranges from Ethiopia in the north, through East and Central Africa, extending westwards into Angola and reaching the southern-most limits of its distribution in Natal (Ref. 2801). In the Congo basin known from Lake Mweru, Luapula, upper Lualaba, Lufira (Ref. 41590) and upper Lulua (Ref. 42554).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 5 - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248)
soft rays: 6 - 7. Last unbranched ray of dorsal fin thorny, long and with posterior denticulation; barbels not well developed, anterior barbel very short, just reaching the posterior side of the maxilla, posterior barbel just reaching the middle of the eye (Ref. 27628). Dorsal side brown-silver colored, ventral side silver, with a darker band on the flanks; fins not colored (Ref. 27628).
Hardy, prefers quiet, well-vegetated waters in lakes, swamps, and marshes or marginal areas of larger rivers and slow-flowing streams (Ref. 7248). In shallow, inshore areas of Lake Victoria especially where bottom is sandy (Ref. 4903). Bottom feeder (Ref. 12526). Feeds on a wide variety of small organisms including insects, small snails and crustaceans, algae, diatoms, and detritus (Ref. 7248). Preyed upon by the sharptooth catfish, tigerfish, largemouth breams (Serranochromis species) and birds (Ref. 7248). Spawns in river and streams during rainy season in Lake Victoria basin (Ref. 4903). Spawns amongst vegetation during summer (Ref. 7248).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Skelton, P.H., 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00763 - 0.02078), b=2.97 (2.83 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.33 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 0.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.40; tm=1; Fec=255; assuming multiple spawning per year).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 638 [349, 1,046] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.42 [1.52, 3.57] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [16.9, 18.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.408 [0.209, 0.808] g/100g ; Selenium = 51.3 [19.4, 109.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 47.5 [22.7, 107.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.57 [1.85, 3.55] mg/100g (wet weight);