Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Plectorhinchinae
Etymology: Plectorhinchus: Greek, plektos = plaited + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335). More on author: Klunzinger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 25 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 36°S, 19°E - 62°E
Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf (Ref.80050) and Red Sea to Transkei in South Africa, Seychelles (Ref. 9710), and Mauritius.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 26.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2799); max. reported age: 14 years (Ref. 92948)
Found over rocks and corals (Ref. 5213), as well as shallow weedy areas. Stomach contents of specimens collected from Iraq composed mainly of benthic organisms including crustaceans (Ref. 97537). Solitary or in small groups close to shelter (Ref. 9710). Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Sousa, M.I. and M. Dias, 1981. Catálogo de peixes de Moçambique - Zona Sul. Instituto de Desenvolvimento Pesqueiro, Maputo. 121 p. (Ref. 5284)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 28.5, mean 27.1 °C (based on 444 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00845 - 0.02473), b=2.98 (2.83 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=1.8; K=0.87-0.95; tmax=14).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 42.4 [25.0, 77.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.552 [0.327, 0.944] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.9 [17.9, 21.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.141 [0.080, 0.218] g/100g ; Selenium = 44.3 [25.1, 75.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 55.7 [23.4, 127.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.955 [0.581, 1.367] mg/100g (wet weight);