Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Plectorhinchinae
Etymology: Plectorhinchus: Greek, plektos = plaited + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forsskål.
This species appears to be restricted to southeast Africa to the Arabian Sea, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Junior synonyms Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay, 1883) and Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier, 1830) are considered valid according to Johnson et al., 2015 (Ref. 103290). Species record and information will be repaired accordingly.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - 80 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 32°S, 29°E - 160°E
Indo-West Pacific: eastern Africa south to Port St. Johns, South Africa and east to the western Pacific.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
Found around rocks and corals from the surf zone to a depth of 80 m (Ref. 2799). Enters estuaries and rivers in Seychelles, Madagascar and South Africa (Ref. 2135). Juveniles occur in tide pools (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 29, mean 27.9 °C (based on 1644 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00689 - 0.02895), b=3.00 (2.83 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (57 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 35.2 [17.1, 71.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.592 [0.314, 1.131] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.4, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.249 [0.114, 0.512] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.2 [19.1, 84.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 77.5 [24.1, 251.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.22 [0.71, 1.94] mg/100g (wet weight);