Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Cantherhines: Greek, kanthos = the outer or inner corner of the eye, where the lids meet, 1646 + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 43 m (Ref. 9710), usually ? - 25 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 32°N - 32°S
Indo-West Pacific: south to Durban, South Africa, east to Marshall Islands. Recently reported from Tonga (Ref. 53797).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5213)
soft rays: 31 - 32. Sometimes resembles the mottled color phase of C. pardalis, but most often has a pattern of about four broad dusky bands converging posteriorly and has a longer tail.
A generally uncommon species found in seaward reefs (Ref. 9710, 48637) and in harbours. Usually in rich coral with various other mixed-invertebrate habitat (Ref. 48637). Found close to shelter (Ref. 9710). Feeds on benthic organisms (Ref. 3467). Solitary (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hutchins, J.B., 1986. Monacanthidae. p. 882-887. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4421)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 28.8, mean 27.5 °C (based on 610 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.01034 - 0.04421), b=2.92 (2.74 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 32.6 [13.0, 129.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.91 [0.33, 2.60] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [16.4, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.0883 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.8 [14.2, 107.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 67.9 [21.1, 223.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.6 [0.6, 2.9] mg/100g (wet weight);