Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range - 5 m (Ref. 86942), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 22°C - 30°C (Ref. 1672); 13°N - 29°S, 32°E - 155°E
Indo-West Pacific: Somalia (Ref. 30573) and Kenya to South Africa, Australia and Papua New Guinea. Also found in the rivers and lagoons of East Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6800)
Common in harbors and estuaries (Ref. 5480); also found in rivers and lagoons. Forms shoals (Ref. 5480). Feeds on detritus and benthic invertebrates (Ref. 30573). Antirolateral glandular groove with venom gland (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Arnoult, J., 1986. Scatophagidae. p. 341. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6800)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28.6, mean 27 °C (based on 364 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.8125 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.00996 - 0.06631), b=2.97 (2.76 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.25 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .