Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Pseudalutarius: Greek, pseudes = false + Latin, lutarius, -a, -um = that lives in the mud (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Temminck & Schlegel.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 55 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: tropical and subtropical waters, South Africa eastward through Indonesia; northward to southern Japan; southward to the east coast of Australia (Ref. 33352). Southeast Atlantic: south coast of South Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
soft rays: 41 - 46. Pale brown to grey in color; two brown stripes on body; adults with yellow spots on head and body; soft dorsal and anal fins yellowish; caudal fin dark brown (Ref. 4421).
Inhabit coastal reefs and enter estuaries. Often in silty habitat and usually on slopes with low rubble reef and rich invertebrate growth, ranging to moderate depths (Ref. 48637). Found on weedy and sandy areas of lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Often found in pairs (Ref. 9710). Sometimes solitary or in groups (Ref. 90102). Juveniles hide or shelter near seawhips or seapens (Ref. 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.4 - 29, mean 27.7 °C (based on 974 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00412 - 0.02789), b=3.05 (2.83 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 52.7 [17.1, 163.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.17 [0.62, 2.22] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [17.2, 21.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.2 [0.1, 0.4] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.7 [7.5, 37.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 46.6 [15.1, 146.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.23 [0.69, 2.12] mg/100g (wet weight);