Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 43448). Subtropical; 30°N - 34°S, 33°E - 155°E
Indo-West Pacific. Red Sea and south to Delagoa Bay, Mozambique (Ref. 4329). Also occurs in the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964). Likely at Seychelles (Ref. 1623).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4329)
soft rays: 7 - 8. Dark vertical bar present below each dorsal fin and on caudal base; a fourth bar may be present between the 2nd dorsal and the caudal base; normally with large ocellus above pectoral fins; pelvic fins black, pectoral fins light, other fins dusky to dark in color (Ref. 4329).
Adults occur inshore (Ref. 7300) and in deep offshore reefs (Ref. 9710). Found among weeds (Ref. 1623). Nocturnal species. Feed at night on zooplankton (Ref. 43448). Have been reared in captivity (Ref. 35416). Mouthbrooders, the males incubate the eggs (Ref. 43448).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Gon, O., 1986. Apogonidae. p. 546-561. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4329)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24 - 29.1, mean 27.6 °C (based on 824 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00901 - 0.02543), b=2.98 (2.84 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 95 [48, 203] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.35 [0.72, 2.57] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [18.5, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.236 [0.123, 0.452] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.3 [5.3, 28.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 40.2 [9.7, 163.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.21 [0.71, 2.04] mg/100g (wet weight);