Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Anacanthus: Greek, ana = up + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gray.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 20 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: western India to Indonesia; south to northwestern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits sandy weedy areas of coastal reefs (Ref. 9710). Lives in open muddy substrates in estuaries as well as deep coastal bays. Usually found lining up with ropes, seawhips and large stringy-type sponges. Incredible mimic that may float over the open bottom like a mangrove-shoot, may stand on its head (Ref. 48637). Enters mangroves (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R. and R. Swainston, 1988. The marine fishes of north-western Australia: a field guide for anglers and divers. Western Australian Museum, Perth. 201 p. (Ref. 3132)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 3053 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00237 - 0.01534), b=3.07 (2.85 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 72.6 [22.2, 169.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.813 [0.417, 1.660] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.1 [14.8, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.16 [0.06, 0.40] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.7 [16.7, 95.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 65.2 [18.4, 224.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.95 [1.12, 3.37] mg/100g (wet weight);