Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335). More on author: Jenyns.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 118646), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 31°N - 10°S, 115°W - 77°W (Ref. 5222)
Eastern Pacific: Baja California, Mexico to Peru, including the offshore islands of Cocos, Revillagigedo, and the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11035)
soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: olive green to reddish brown with scattered irregular white and brown spots and blotches; white triangle at the margin of the interspinous dorsal-fin membranes and bright white tag at the tip of each spine; juveniles with black spots on the top of head and median fins reddish distally with white edge; small black saddle on peduncle; inside of mouth is red; depth of body contained 2.7-3.1 times in SL; head length 2.2-2.5 times in SL; flat interorbital area; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, slightly enlarged ventral serrae; smooth subopercle and interopercle; slightly convex upper edge of operculum; subequal anterior and posterior nostrils (Ref. 89707).
Adults are most abundant in shallow water and also occurs to a depth of at least 30 m. Inhabits rocky area of coastal waters within continental shelf (Ref. 11035). A solitary predator that seems to feed on smaller fishes by day and crustaceans after dark. Spawning occurs in late summer (Ref. 5592).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00969 - 0.02477), b=3.05 (2.92 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=23; k=0.25).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 71.8 [34.6, 181.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.665 [0.321, 1.508] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 19] % ; Omega3 = 0.217 [0.117, 0.403] g/100g ; Selenium = 73.2 [34.8, 148.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 49.6 [12.1, 206.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.12 [0.66, 1.92] mg/100g (wet weight);