Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangaria/misc
(Various families in series Carangaria) > Latidae
Etymology: Psammoperca: Greek, psammos = sand + Greek,perke = perch (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 12 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Bay of Bengal, Indo-Australian Archipelago and northern Australia to the Philippines, China Sea and Japan (Ref. 2334). Found in the Mekong delta (Ref. 12693).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 28 - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9799)
(total): 7 - 8;
soft rays: 8 - 9. One large flat spine at rear angle of preoperculum. Color varies from light silvery gray to dark brown; eyes reddish. Lateral line extends onto caudal fin.
Inhabits rocky or coral reefs, frequently in weedy areas, usually in holes and crevices by day. Enters estuaries (Ref. 4833). Forages on fishes and crustaceans at night (Ref. 9710). Mainly marketed fresh. In Hong Kong sold live in fish markets (Ref. 27253).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 2981 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00479 - 0.02184), b=3.03 (2.84 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 71.7 [33.8, 137.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.772 [0.456, 1.745] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.3, 21.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.299 [0.154, 0.584] g/100g ; Selenium = 40 [19, 93] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 66.5 [17.7, 239.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.41 [0.87, 2.37] mg/100g (wet weight);