Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.5 - 7.2; non-migratory; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 18°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060); 10°S - 28°S
Africa: widely distributed in southern Africa; present in various lakes and river drainages in Malawi, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa and southeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ref. 47311).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31267); common length : 4.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27139)
Found near the surface and among weeds in which it seeks refuge and food (Ref. 5595). Prefers standing or gently flowing water as in river backwaters, floodplains (Ref. 7248), swamps (Ref. 7248, 47311), creeks and pools (Ref. 47311). Usually found in small schools among fringing vegetation; usually abundant when present (Ref. 47311). Feeds on small invertebrates like mosquito larvae and daphnia. A serial spawner, lays eggs which attach to vegetation. When food is abundant, breeding occurs daily over an extended period (year-round where conditions are suitable) (Ref. 7248). 6 cm max TL (Ref. 3788). Not a seasonal killifish. Is difficult to maintain in aquarium (Ref. 27139).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Wildekamp, R.H., R. Romand and J.J. Scheel, 1986. Cyprinodontidae. p. 165-276. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels, MRAC; Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3788)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00162 - 0.01173), b=3.14 (2.91 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .