Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sillaginidae
Etymology: Sillago: From a locality in Australia .
More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 9563). Temperate; 28°S - 40°S, 112°E - 145°E (Ref. 6205)
Eastern Indian Ocean: Endemic to southern regions of the Australian continental shelf. Distribution ranges from Kangaroo Island in South Australia (Ref. 27573) to Geraldton in Western Australia (Ref. 6335). Report from Western Victoria (Ref. 6205) is erroneous (Ref. 6390). Not yet recorded from western Tasmania.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 20.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6205)
(total): 11 - 13;
soft rays: 18 - 20;
Vertebrae: 33 - 35. No dark spot at the base of the pectoral fin; a series of oblique broken rusty brown bars on the back and upper sides, without a longitudinal row of rusty brown blotches along the midlateral silver stripe.
Live close to the sea bed over sandy substrates. Occur in the surf zone of beaches and quiet waters of bays and sandbanks. Are trawled in offshore waters to at least 55 m and possibly deeper. Juveniles may be found in shallow water off white sand beaches, together with accumulations of dead seaweed in the surf zone during spring and summer in Western Australia. Move into shallow waters in large schools during full moon (Ref. 6205). Feed mainly on crustaceans, amphipods, decapods, mysids and copepods. Juveniles consume mostly copepods (Ref. 6223). Oviparous (Ref. 205), and are multiple spawners with asynchronous development (Ref. 12343).
S. bassensis is a multiple spawner and spawns asynchronously during the breeding season (Ref. 12343).
McKay, R.J., 1992. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.2 - 20.5, mean 17.8 °C (based on 100 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00359 - 0.02015), b=3.07 (2.86 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.47 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.26-0.29).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .