Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - 92 m (Ref. 244), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 32°S, 32°E - 140°W (Ref. 244)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa (including Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar) to Philippines, north to Viet Nam, south to Australia. Also from Palau, Marshall Islands, and Tahiti. Recorded from Taiwan (Ref. 4868).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 220 - 240 cm
Max length : 380 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5213)
soft rays: 0. A large, stocky, yellowish shark with a broad, blunt snout, narrow, smooth-cusped teeth in both jaws, and equal-sized dorsal fins (Ref. 5578). Yellowish brown above, paler below (Ref. 9997). With two nearly equally large dorsal fins (Ref. 37816).
Found on continental and insular shelves and terraces (Ref. 244). Common on coral reefs (Ref. 5578) and in shallow, sandy lagoons and turbid, mangrove swamps (Ref. 6871). Feeds on smaller sharks, stingrays and on benthic bony fishes (Ref. 5578). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Dangerous if provoked (Ref. 244). 1 to 11 of 45 cm young are born per litter (Ref. 1602). Meat is utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption, fins for shark-fin soup base, and liver oil for vitamins (Ref. 244).
Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449), 1-14 per litter (Ref. 6871). Gestation period 10-11 months (Ref. 5578; Ref.58048). Size at birth about 50 to 70 cm TL (Ref. 9997); 45-80 cm TL (Ref.58048). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Mating and pupping take place during late spring and early summer (Ref. 37816).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 2034 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00218 - 0.01003), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (81 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 7.88 [1.16, 31.58] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.447 [0.139, 1.364] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.2 [17.6, 22.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.198 [0.071, 0.539] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.7 [8.2, 128.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 53.9 [14.6, 203.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.596 [0.268, 1.264] mg/100g (wet weight);