Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Abalistes: Greek, a = without + Greek, ballo = to throw (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 7 - 350 m (Ref. 58488), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 46°N - 36°S, 21°E - 164°W
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, East Africa eastward through northern Australia to Fiji, northward to southern Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111441); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9770)
soft rays: 24 - 26. Scales enlarged above the pectoral fin base and just behind the gill slit to form a flexible tympanum; scales of posterior body with prominent keels, forming longitudinal ridges. A prominent groove in the skin extending anteriorly from front of eye for a distance of about 1 eye diameter. Caudal peduncle depressed. Caudal fin rays of adults prolonged above and below.
Inhabit coastal areas, usually found over muddy and sandy bottoms, also around reefs, together with the sponges and algae (Ref. 5213). Adults on deep coastal slopes and usually seen swimming high above the bottom, sometimes found in estuaries. Juveniles in sheltered coastal bays and estuaries with outcrops of rubble or debris on open substrates (Ref. 48637). Feed on benthic animals (Ref. 9769). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Also caught with vertical long-lines (Ref. 9770). Marketed fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 9770).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Matsuura, K., 2001. Balistidae. Triggerfishes. p. 3911-3928. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9770)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 28.3, mean 27.1 °C (based on 501 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02630 (0.01711 - 0.04044), b=2.87 (2.74 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 103 [39, 224] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.697 [0.395, 1.497] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [16.1, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.21 [0.09, 0.49] g/100g ; Selenium = 69.2 [35.4, 150.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.9 [4.5, 40.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.827 [0.542, 1.311] mg/100g (wet weight);