Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - ? m. Subtropical; 37°N - 9°S, 18°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: West to Gibraltar, Morocco and Dakar, Senegal to Luanda, Angola. Eastern Mediterranean: From Lebanon and Israel.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
soft rays: 13 - 17. Diagnosis: body elongate; lower jaw forming long, narrow beak; upper jaw short, triangular and scaled; scales on snout; well developed preorbital crest between eye and nasal pit; pelvics fin abdominal; dorsal and anal fins placed far back on body and spineless; caudal fin slightly forked (Ref. 57227).
Occurs in coastal waters. Often enters estuaries (Ref. 2683). Live on or near the bottom where it feeds on algae and organic debris which it gathers from the surface of the sediment (Ref. 5377). Forms schools. Attracted to lights at night. Eggs are attached to aquatic vegetation by sticky threads (Ref. 6730).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and N.V. Parin, 1990. Hemiramphidae. p. 579-582. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4497)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18.4 - 27.9, mean 21.9 °C (based on 146 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00245 (0.00112 - 0.00536), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).