Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Nettastomatidae
Etymology: Venefica: Latin, vena = vein + Latin, fica, facere = to make (Ref. 45335). More on author: Vaillant.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 385 - 2200 m (Ref. 54804). Deep-water
Worldwide in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters (Ref. 33390).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4454)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Greyish black in color, darker on snout, throat and belly (Ref. 6591).
Inhabits the lower continental slope (Ref. 4454).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, D.G., 1990. Nettastomatidae. p. 172-175. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4454)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.6 - 7.4, mean 5.1 °C (based on 1171 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00063 (0.00029 - 0.00138), b=2.93 (2.74 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tmax>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .