Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 100 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Pacific: central Honshu, Japan to Taiwan and the Philippines. Also occurs in Indonesia and northwestern Australia, a new record for the northeastern Indian Ocean (Ref. 5978).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); common length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)
May enter semi-enclosed sea areas; forms schools over rocky bottoms (Ref. 11230). Nocturnal species (Ref. 7300). Breeding pairs are found from July to September in Japan. Mouth brooding is done by the male (Ref. 240).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205). Displays obligate monogamy where a one-to-one pair is established irrespective of resource abundance (Ref. 52884).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.1 - 28.9, mean 27.6 °C (based on 824 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00729 - 0.02174), b=3.06 (2.92 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 156 [74, 288] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.08 [0.61, 2.20] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.6, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.309 [0.142, 0.693] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.7 [8.7, 63.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 81.3 [20.2, 306.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.91 [1.19, 3.06] mg/100g (wet weight);