Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes) > Chiloglanidinae
Etymology: Chiloglanis: Greek, cheilos = lip + Greek, glanis = a fish that can eat the bait without touching the hook; a cat fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 15°S - 27°S
Africa: two areas, tributaries of the Pongolo and Komato-Incomati rivers in South Africa and Swaziland, and the Pungwe and middle and lower Zambezi in Zimbabwe. Threatened by water extraction, river regulation and sedimentation.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8. Mouth is used as a sucking disc to hold its position in fast flowing waters. Gut length is less than standard length and the mandibular teeth are used to scrape invertebrates from stones.
Found in shallow rocky runs and riffles of clear rivers, at an altitude of 900-1200 m above sea level, and depths from 0.2 to 0.4 m (Ref. 52116). Feeds on invertebrates such as mayfly nymphs and caddis fly, blackfly or midge larvae grazed from rocks. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Breeds in summer (Ref. 7248). Distribution in southern Africa is restricted and may be threatened by alteration of its habitat (Ref. 52116).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Is likely to be an interstitial gravel spawner (Ref. 52116).
Gosse, J.-P., 1986. Mochokidae. p. 105-152. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels, MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3202)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Vulnerable (VU) (B1ab(iii,iv)+2ab(iii,iv)); Date assessed: 14 November 2017
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 320).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .