Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cobitidae
Etymology: Cobitis: Greek, kobitis, -idos = a kind of sardine; also related with the voice Greek, kobios, Latin gobius = gudgeon (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; non-migratory (Ref. 38442). Temperate; 44°N - 36°N, 9°W - 1°W
Europe: Iberian Peninsula, except in Alagon system (Tagus drainage), northern Ebro and northern Douro drainages. Also found north of the peninsula where it has been locally introduced.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 6 - 6.4 cm
Max length : 7.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); 13.0 cm SL (female); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 38442)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Presence of mandibular barbel 4-8 times in HL. Pectoral fin length 4.3-5.4 times in SL in males, 4.3-9.0 times in females. 6-7.5 branched dorsal rays. One lamina circularis.
A short-lived species, secretive in nature (Ref. 38442). Adults inhabit middle and lower reaches, with shallow waters, sandy bottoms and submerged plants (Ref. 11240). During dry periods, they can survive in very small water bodies (Ref. 59043). Feed on invertebrates and plants. Spawn in May to July. Oviparous, with distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are small (1.7 mm) and sticky, placed within dense vegetation if available (Ref. 59043). Threatened due to pollution, habitat destruction and the introduction of other species (Ref. 26100).
During courtship, 'the male follows the female and, after both enter dense vegetation (e.g. filamentous algae), the male forms a complete ring around the female's body behind the dorsal as the female releases the eggs' (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00310 - 0.01118), b=3.07 (2.91 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.34 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=1; tmax=4; Fec=281-1,397).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .