Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Aetobatidae
(Pacific eagle rays)
Etymology: Aetobatus: Greek, aetos = eagle + Greek, batis, batidos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335); narutobiei: Named for its common name in the Japanese waters ‘Naru tobi-ei’ (pronounced ‘Nar-oo-tobee-ay’), Naru’ referring to Naru Island and ‘Tobi-ei’ the Japanese name used for eagle rays which translates to black kite (a bird); noun in apposition..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic. Subtropical
Northwest Pacific: eastern Vietnam, Hong Kong, China, Korea and southern Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 80 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 94821); 150.0 cm WD (female); max. published weight: 14.4 kg (Ref. 94821); max. published weight: 14.4 kg
Morphology | Morphometrics
This medium to large-sized Aetobatus (reaching 150 cm DW) possess the following diagnostic characters: uniformly greenish grey to brownish dorsal surfaces, without pale spots or ocelli; long head, ventral length 27.4-31.9% DW; long to very long rostral lobe (longest in adult males) and narrow, tapering evenly to tip; single row of teeth plates, those in lower jaw chevron-shaped; width of lower tooth plate about 2.4 times its width and in about 18 series; 100-104 pectoral-fin radials (excluding propterygial radials anterior of eyes); 88-90 total vertebral centra (including synarcual); pelvic-fin radials 1 (with 2-5 fused elements) +17-18; males mature by about 80 cm DW; born at 33.4-35.2 cm DW (Ref. 94821).
Found in shallow waters at water temperature above 15-17°C; in winter months, the species leave the shallower bays for nearby sea where water temperature is above 15°C brought by the Kuroshio current-derived warm waters (Ref. 94821).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
White, W.T., K. Furumitsu and A. Yamaguchi, 2013. A new species of Eagle ray Aetobatus narutobiei from the Northwest Pacific: an example of the critical role taxonomy plays in fisheries and ecological sciences. Plos One 8(12)e83785:1-12. (Ref. 94821)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .