Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 58302), usually 5 - 20 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 27115); 32°N - 26°S
Indo-Pacific: Natal, South Africa (Ref. 11228) and Madagascar to the Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1602)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 6 - 9. Characterized by semi-transparent reddish body color, blends in well with host gorgonian; iris with gold inner ring, broad red outer ring; 2-4 lowermost pectoral rays are unbranched; longitudinal scale series 37-79; short and cup-like pelvic fins; thickened and lobed skin surrounding pelvic spines; opening of gill extending ventrally to below pectoral fin base (Ref. 90102).
Benthic (Ref. 58302). Live exclusively on, or in close association with gorgonian seawhips Junceella fragilis and Junceela juncea which usually occur in groups in areas exposed to currents at depths of 5 to more than 30 m (Ref. 1602, 58302). May also live on other species like Ellisella maculata, or even on mooring lines (Ref. 1602). Also Ref. 48637.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28.9, mean 27.7 °C (based on 518 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00261 - 0.01268), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 242 [110, 548] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.981 [0.537, 1.893] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.125 [0.055, 0.249] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.8 [10.6, 54.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 129 [36, 439] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.41 [1.37, 4.06] mg/100g (wet weight);