Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 15 - 53 m (Ref. 11441), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-Pacific: Known from the Society Islands, Hawaiian Islands, Palau (Myers, 1999), Solomon Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Ryukyu Islands (Senou et al., 2004), Gulf of Thailand, Indonesia (Randall, 2005), Chagos Archipelago, Maldive Islands (Kuiter, 1998), and Oman (Randall, 1995). Reported as a first record for the Red Sea from an underwater photograph taken by Sven Kahlbrock off Hurghada, Egypt (Ref. 89154). Maldives (Ref. 30829) and Chagos Archipelago to the Hawaiian Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 2.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59154)
(total): 6 - 7;
soft rays: 8 - 9. Dorsal-fin rays VI + I,7 or I,8 (usually I,8); anal-fin rays usually I,8 or I,9; pectoral-fin rays 12–14 (usually 13); anteriormost scales on body usually reaching to above or a little anterior to pectoral-fin base, the longitudinal scale series 32–59 (mean scale count 47); body elongate, the depth at origin of anal fin 11.6–14.5 % SL; head width about equal to head depth; snout length about equal to orbit diameter; gill opening small, reaching ventrally to below or just anterior to lower edge of pectoral-fin base; mouth slightly inferior; a recurved canine tooth (or pair of teeth) at side of lower jaw; lower edge of preopercle slightly scalloped; caudal fin truncate with rounded corners; pelvic fins short, round, and cup-like, the pelvic spines and frenum thickened; dorsal two-fifths of body transparent, crossed by six or seven narrow bars that may be yellow, dusky orange, or red, with a small spot of the same color dorsally between each bar; a white line above vertebral column; lower three-fifths of body dusky to blackish orange. Largest specimen, 24.5 mm (Ref. 89154).
Inhabit deep slopes, subject to strong currents, with isolated outcrops of black corals (Ref. 48637). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Found in small groups. Eggs are laid on a branch section after removing the polyps and guarded by the male (Ref. 48637). Associated with antipatharian corals at depths below 15 m (Ref. 2334). Dart out to feed on small animals of the plankton (Ref. 11441).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28.9, mean 27.7 °C (based on 430 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00332 - 0.01511), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .