Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 220 m. Temperate; 32°S - 44°S
Eastern Indian Ocean: southern Australia, from Western Australia to New South Wales.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 82 - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Vertebrae: 129 - 138. Head short and very broad. Body robust with inflatable stomach; with dark, mottled and blotched color pattern, and mostly with a dark median stripe on the belly. Labial furrows absent. Denticles large and widely spaced.
Found on the continental shelf from close inshore in shallow to deeper water. Oviparous, hatching at about 14 cm (Ref. 6871). Can expand itself with air or water. Caught by commercial bottom trawlers but of no use to fisheries at present.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14 - 18.2, mean 16 °C (based on 175 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00331 (0.00170 - 0.00646), b=3.15 (2.97 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (80 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 11 [2, 39] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.21 [0.06, 0.53] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.4 [14.6, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.349 [0.158, 0.763] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.1 [4.4, 48.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15.1 [5.3, 41.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.315 [0.145, 0.623] mg/100g (wet weight);