Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Echeneidae
Etymology: Echeneis: Greek, echein = to hold + Greek, nays = ship; remora, suckling fish; 1774 (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 43°N - 4°N, 98°W - 51°W
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts in USA, Bahamas and northern Gulf of Mexico to northern South America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Occurs near as well as far from the coast (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23 - 28, mean 25.6 °C (based on 440 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7539 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00111 - 0.00682), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 24.9 [13.8, 47.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.87 [0.52, 1.46] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [18.7, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.143 [0.083, 0.247] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.8 [12.3, 45.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 36.4 [11.9, 109.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.728 [0.486, 1.099] mg/100g (wet weight);