Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Percoidei
(Perchs) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); simoterum: simoterum meaning snub-nosed (Ref. 10294).
More on author: Cope.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate; 38°N - 34°N
North America: found only in Cumberland and Tennessee River drainages in Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Inhabits current-swept rocky pools and adjacent riffles of creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 5723, 10294); also found in streams (Ref. 10294). Feeds on midge larvae, with mayfly nymphs, caddis larvae, and microcrustacea (Ref. 10294).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (20):183 p. (Ref. 3814)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00231 - 0.01249), b=3.14 (2.94 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).