Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gonorynchiformes
(Milkfish) > Gonorynchidae
Etymology: Gonorynchus: Greek, gonia (?????) = angle, corner + Greek, rhyngchos (or rhúnkhos - ??????) = snout (Ref. 45335). More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 160 m (Ref. 9563). Subtropical; 25°S - 44°S, 110°E - 79°W
South Pacific: Southwest Pacific: Australia, Norfolk I. and Lord Howe I., New Zealand, and Kermadec Islands (Ref. 8879); Southeast Pacific: Desventuradas Is. (Ref. 89357)..
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9563)
Adults are benthic fishes in shallow estuaries and outer shelf; juveniles are pelagic in open ocean. They bury themselves head first when disturbed (Ref. 33838). White flesh is firm and of good flavor.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of potential interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.5 - 22.4, mean 16.8 °C (based on 344 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.1 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .