Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335). More on author: Ayres.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 35581). Subtropical; 34°N - 2°S, 121°W - 90°W (Ref. 96339)
Eastern Pacific: Point Conception in California, USA to southern Baja California in Mexico. Also known from the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 35581).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 152 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 56049)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found common among rocks; lives in crevices or holes, usually with only head protruding. Very common in shallow reef areas (Ref. 35581). Feed mostly at night on crustaceans, octopuses and small fishes. Long-lived. Pelagic spawners (Ref. 56049).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous. Pelagic spawner (Ref. 56049).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18 - 28.3, mean 25.3 °C (based on 18 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00048 (0.00026 - 0.00088), b=3.27 (3.12 - 3.42), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=30).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .