Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Harengula: Old English haring, hering = mackerel, the fish Clupea harengus (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188). Subtropical; 31°N - 7°S, 99°W - 47°W (Ref. 188)
Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico and southeastern Florida to northern Brazil, including the Bahamas, the entire Caribbean and the West Indies.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 7 - ? cm
Max length : 18.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 102462); common length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); max. published weight: 67.12 g (Ref. 102462)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Tooth-plate on tongue and tooth plate behind it (basihyal and basibranchials tooth plates) broad, their width about 3 to 5 times in their combined length, the basibranchial tooth plate with a distinct bulge in front. Scales fairly strongly attached, not easily lost. No dark pigment on dorsal fin tip (Ref. 188). Silvery, with a dark greenish back. Diffuse yellow or pale orange spot at edge of opercle. Body slender, lower profile not strongly curved (Ref. 7251).
Occurs in coastal waters, estuaries and lagoons, tolerating low salinities. Can tolerate a broad range of salinity levels (Ref. 26938). Forms schools, small individuals often along sandy beaches. Its flesh has an unpleasant odor. Utilized as fishmeal (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 28, mean 26.8 °C (based on 230 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00790 - 0.01005), b=3.05 (3.02 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .