Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Leuciscidae
(Minnows) > Plagopterinae
Etymology: Hemitremia: Greek, hemi = half + Greek, trema = hole (Ref. 45335); flammea: From the words hemi, meaning half; tremia, aperture (referring to the incomplete lateral line); and flammea, flaming (referring to the bright red breeding colors) (Ref. 10294). More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Temperate; 37°N - 33°N
North America: middle Cumberland (mostly Caney Fork) and Tennessee River drainages in Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama, USA; Kelley Creek (Coosa River system) in Alabama.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10294)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 7 - 8. Hemitremia flammea can be distinguished by having the following characters: caudal peduncle deep; head short; snout extremely short; mouth small, slightly subterminal; eye round; body barely compressed; dorsal fin origin slightly behind pelvic fin origin; lateral line incomplete, fewer than half of scales pored; 38-44 lateral scales; anal fin with 7-8 rays; pharyngeal teeth 2,5-4,2; and coloration consists of olive above, dark stripe along back, dark streaks along upper side, followed by light stripe, then black stripe ending at black caudal spot or wedge, white to red below, bright scarlet red along bottom 1/3 of body and at base of dorsal fin in large specimens (especially males), and silver peritoneum flecked with black (Ref. 86798).
Occurs in springs and spring-fed streams, usually over gravel (Ref. 5723, 86798). Feeds on midge larvae supplemented with isopods, oligochaetes, hemipterans, and snails (Ref. 10294).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00250 - 0.01453), b=3.05 (2.84 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm<1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .