Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 40°N - 20°N, 108°E - 130°E (Ref. 114953)
Northwest Pacific: China to South Korea, including the Yellow Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Nishida, K. and K. Nakaya, 1990. Taxonomy of the genus Dasyatis (Elasmobranchia, Dasyatidae) from the North Pacific. In: Pratt Jr., H. L., S. H. Gruber and T. Taniuchi (eds.): Elasmobranchs as living resources: advances in the biology, ecology, systematics, and the status of the fisheries. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Tech. Rept. NMFS 90:327-346. (Ref. 7445)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00265 - 0.01571), b=3.06 (2.86 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .