Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Herklotsichthys: After Janus Adrian Herklots, Australian ichthyologist, 1820-1872.
More on author: Rüppell.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 13 m (Ref. 82332). Tropical; 39°N - 33°S, 29°E - 166°W (Ref. 188)
Indo-Pacific: widespread in Indian Ocean and western Pacific, including entire eastern coast of Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius eastward to Japan, eastern Australia, and Samoa (Ref. 188). Introduced into Hawaii, apparently by accident, and now abundant (Ref. 188). At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 12.3, range 7 - 17 cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 15 - 21. Diagnosis: Body slender, its depth 18 to 30% of standard length; presence of two fleshy outgrowths on the hind margin of the gill opening; sharp belly with keeled scutes, 16-19 pre-pelvic and 12-14 post-pelvic scutes (Ref. 188, 3259). The presence of elongate wing-like scales underneath the normal paired pre-dorsal scales separate it from all other species except the two Australian species with prominent black spots on the flank, Herklotsichthys koningsbergeri and Herklotsichthys Species A, and the unspotted Herklotsichthys Species B, which has dusky tips to dorsal and caudal fins and more lower gill rakers, 36-42 vs. 33-36 in H. quadrimaculatus (Ref. 188). Flank silvery with an electric blue line preceded by two orange spots (Ref. 188).
Adults form schools near mangroves, shallow coastal bays and lagoons during the day and moves further offshore into deeper water by night (Ref. 188, 48635); at depths of 0-13m (Ref. 58302, 82332). Known in mills around in large schools under wharves or along sandy beaches in protected bays (Ref. 26367). Pelagic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on zooplankton, mainly at night, chiefly copepods in juvenile stages, but larger prey as adults (chaetognaths, polychaetes, shrimps and small fishes) (Ref. 188). Breeds during its first year and probably survives only a few months after maturity (Ref. 188). Marketed fresh and dried salted (Ref. 188). Usually parceled in leaves and baked in a motu oven. Do not recover quite as quickly as other species of baitfish after heavy fishing (Ref. 26367).
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Breeds during its first year and probably survives only a few months after maturity (Ref. 188).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 6362)
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 3173 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00587 - 0.01555), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=2.6).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High vulnerability (58 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 133 [58, 281] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.51 [0.77, 2.95] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.7, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.51 [0.22, 1.22] g/100g ; Selenium = 42 [16, 100] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 50.8 [13.1, 199.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.53 [0.98, 2.50] mg/100g (wet weight);