Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Dasyatidae
(Stingrays) > Urogymninae
Etymology: Himantura: Greek, iman, imantos = thong, strap + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-Pacific: off India, Indonesia, and Gulf of Thailand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 58048)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is characterized by absence of skin fold on the ventral surface of the tail; quadrangular profile of disc; whip-like tail variably banded; adults' upper surface with widely spaced, honeycomb-like reticulations; juveniles with relatively large spots on disc (Ref. 58048).
Found inshore on soft substrates. Viviparous, with histotrophy. Few biological information is available, diet presumably consists of crustaceans and small fishes. Caught occasionally in demersal tangle nets; meat, skin (of high value) and cartilage are utilized (Ref. 58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
White, W.T., P.R. Last, J.D. Stevens, G.K. Yearsley, Fahmi and Dharmadi, 2006. Economically important sharks and rays of Indonesia. [Hiu dan pari yang bernilai ekonomis penting di Indonesia]. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia. (Ref. 58048)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.9 - 29.3, mean 28.7 °C (based on 630 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00366 - 0.01891), b=3.10 (2.90 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100) .