Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Dasyatidae
(Stingrays) > Urogymninae
Etymology: Himantura: Greek, iman, imantos = thong, strap + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Hamilton.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Asia: Gangetic river system. Possibly in the Bay of Bengal and the Fly river system in New Guinea. Status is uncertain, close to Himantura chaophraya. Validity of this species questioned in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 4832)
Inhabits rivers. Also found in shallow bays and estuaries in the Bay of Bengal. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p. (Ref. 4832)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00366 - 0.01891), b=3.10 (2.90 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Assuming Fec<10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .