Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Dasyatidae
(Stingrays) > Urogymninae
Etymology: Himantura: Greek, iman, imantos = thong, strap + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range - 70 m (Ref. 76961), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Africa to New Guinea, north to Thailand and south to Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 70 - 80 cm
Max length : 110.5 cm WD (female); max. published weight: 55.0 kg (Ref. 124786)
Occurs mainly inshore and coastal, but on the continental shelf to depths of at least 70 m. Birth size is about 20 cm DW (Ref. 76961).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Manjaji-Matsumoto, B.M and P.R. Last, 2008. Himantura leoparda sp. Nov., a new whipray (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae) from the Indo-Pacific. In Last, P.R., White, W.T. & Pogonoski, J.J. (eds.): Descriptions of New Australian Chondrichthyans. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper no. 22. (Ref. 76961)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 1234 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00366 - 0.01891), b=3.10 (2.90 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .