Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hyporhamphus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, rhamphos = beak, bill (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - ? m. Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to China along the mainland coast of Asia. Replaced in the East Indies, Borneo, and the Philippines by Hyporhamphus neglectus and around northern Australia and southern New Guinea by Hyporhamphus neglectissimus.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 9 - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 85009); common length : 13.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9843)
soft rays: 13 - 16. Greatly prolonged, beak-like lower jaw, equal to, or longer than head length; upper jaw short, triangular and scaly, its width 0.6-0.8 times in its length. Preorbital distance 1.3-2.1 times in diameter of orbit and 0.75-1.2 times in length of upper jaw. Total number of gill rakers on first gill arch 23-37. Anal fin rays 13-16; caudal fin emarginate, not strongly forked.
Coastal species. Found at surface levels of tidal freshwaters and brackish estuaries (Ref. 12693). Encountered in the Mekong as far upstream as Stung Treng and also found in the Great Lake, Cambodia (Ref. 12693). Feed mainly on insects (Ref. 12693, 33813). Marketed fresh and dried salted.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and J. Su, 1986. The halfbeaks (Pisces, Beloniformes, Hemiramphidae) of the Far East. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 138(1):250-301. (Ref. 10943)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 29.2, mean 28.3 °C (based on 1334 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00234 (0.00135 - 0.00407), b=3.06 (2.91 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 713 [315, 1,595] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.6 [0.9, 4.0] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [16.0, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.486 [0.185, 1.412] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.1 [15.4, 76.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 64.7 [25.3, 159.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.8 [1.1, 4.7] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.