Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 0 - 900 m (Ref. 50610). Subtropical; 60°N -
North Pacific: Japan and Gulf of Alaska to central Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6885)
Found near surface and to at least 91 m depth (Ref. 2850). Young are abundant offshore, often among jellyfish (Ref. 2850).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.9 - 12, mean 6.6 °C (based on 126 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00562 - 0.03389), b=3.06 (2.85 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.33 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .