Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gonorynchiformes
(Milkfish) > Kneriidae
(Shellears) > Kneriinae
Etymology: Kneria: From Kner, that studied fishes in the Imperial Museum of Vienna, with Jean Natterer (1817) (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Poll & Stewart.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
Africa: endemic to the Luongo River (Luapula affluent, upper Congo River basin) in Zambia (Ref. 89001).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89001)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 10. Diagnosis: body depth 18.7-26.1% standard length (SL); head length 16.8-20% SL; distance tip of snout to dorsal fin origin 53-60% SL (Ref. 2970, 89001). Distance dorsal fin origin to caudal fin base 43-51% SL (Ref. 89001). Snout length 30-35% head length (HL) (Ref. 2970, 89001), 109.5-138% eye diameter (ED) (Ref. 2970). Eye diameter 23.9-28% HL (Ref. 2970, 89001). Interorbital distance 120-160% ED; preorbital distance 47.6-65% ED; pectoral fin length 12.9-16.1% SL (Ref. 2970). Eyes lateral; opercular organ (present only in males) larger than eye; dorsal fin origin slightly behind a vertical through the pelvic fin base; pectoral fins very short, same length as the pelvic fins; distance between pelvic fin base and anal fin larger than anal fin-caudal fin base distance; scales relatively large; body yellowish, with 3 longitudinale bands: one dorsal, one mediolateral which is split up anteriorly by the paler lateral line, and a ventral band which is shorter; bands well developed in males, but in females usually more or less broken up in irregular spots, especially the dorsal band, while the ventral band is mostly absent; fins greyish; head marbled and spotted irregularly (Ref. 89001).
Remark: note that the first column in the comparative table in Ref. 2970 (p. 41) contains the morphometrics for K. katangae and the second for K. paucisquamata, contrarily to what is mentioned above the respective columns (T. Musschoot, pers. comm.).
Epibenthic algae scraper (Ref. 27609). Maximum TL was recorded at 5.5 cm (Ref. 89001).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poll, M., 1984. Kneriidae. p. 129-133. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3565)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .