Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 3 - 15 m (Ref. 27549), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 41°N - 24°N, 96°W - 71°W
Western Atlantic: New York and northern Gulf of Mexico to Florida in USA and northern Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Occurs along shore and in bays and inlets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.8 - 26.1, mean 23.5 °C (based on 147 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00229 - 0.01150), b=3.08 (2.89 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 256 [114, 518] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.88 [1.69, 4.80] mg/100g ; Protein = 20 [18, 23] % ; Omega3 = 0.4 [0.2, 0.9] g/100g ; Selenium = 20.3 [10.2, 41.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 22.1 [7.7, 62.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.3 [0.9, 1.9] mg/100g (wet weight);