Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Monochirus: Greek, monos = one + Greek, cheir = hand (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 250 m (Ref. 109259). Tropical
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Ghana.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 109259); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 109259)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 50-58. This species is distingusihed by the following characters: body oval, stocky, laterally compressed; greatest depth in anterior one-third with moderate anterior and more gradual posterior taper beyond this point; head relatively large, broadly rounded anteriorly; short snout rounded; eyes separated by small, concave, interorbital space; mouth symphysis reaching vertical through middle of lower eye; ocular-side anterior nostril tubular, reaching beyond anterior margin of lower eye; blind-side anterior nostril tubular; D 50-58, fin's origin anterior to vertical through anterior margin of eyes; A 40-45; dorsal and anal fins are not connected to caudal peduncle; caudal peduncle very distinct; pectoral-fin rays 5-6 on ocular side, absent on blind side; scales trapezoid, very rough; pored lateral line scales 52-54, supratemporal branch of lateral line not distinct. Colour: ocular side is greyish or reddish brown with darker spots or irregular bands, the dorsal and anal fins with alternating series of 1 or 2 lightly pigmented and 4 to 6 darkly pigmented fin rays, the pectoral fin darker than body colour; blind side whitish (Ref. 109259).
This demersal species is found on sand and mud bottoms on the continental shelf (10-250 m), and also occurring frequently near plant growth. Common length between 10 and 15 cm SL. Taken in by bottom trawls and shore seines. Marketed fresh in some countries, rejected in others (Ref. 109259).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and N. De Angelis (eds.), 2016. The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Vol. 4: Bony fishes part 2 (Perciformes to Tetradontiformes) and sea turtles. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome, FAO. pp. 2343-3124. (Ref. 109259)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= No PD50 data [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00615 - 0.01867), b=3.10 (2.95 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 1.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .