Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes
(Electric rays) > Narcinidae
Etymology: Narcine: Greek, narke = numbness (Ref. 45335). More on author: Shaw.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 30 - 80 m (Ref. 9912). Tropical; 27°N - 0°N, 78°E - 124°E (Ref. 114953)
Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka to southwest China (Hongkong), including Taiwan, Thailand and the Philippines (Ref. 114953). Validity of this species questioned in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Occurs in inshore continental waters (Ref. 9912). Biology little known (Ref. 9912). Size usually smaller to 35 cm TL. Males reaches maturity smaller than 28 cm TL; born at ca. 13 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
de Carvalho, M.R., L.J.V. Compagno and P.R. Last, 1999. Narcinidae. Numbfishes. p. 1433-1442. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes. Part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9912)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.5 - 28.4, mean 27.5 °C (based on 277 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00468 - 0.02950), b=2.88 (2.67 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .