Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Notacanthiformes
(Halosaurs and deep-sea spiny eels) > Notacanthidae
(Deep-sea spiny eels)
Etymology: Notacanthus: Greek, noton = back + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 487 - 2000 m (Ref. 56504). Deep-water; 55°N - 20°N, 25°W - 17°E
Eastern Atlantic: Faeroes and Ireland to Cape Blanc, Mauritania including western Mediterranean (Italy). Reported from Iceland (Ref. 12462).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26178)
Hovers and swims along at slight head-down angle. Often caught in large numbers and possibly gregarious. Depth range from 700-2000 m and from 487-1034 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feeds on sessile and motile invertebrates such as bryozoans, ophiuroids, amphipods and sponges. Spawns in June-July in the Mediterranean. Sexually dimorphic, males generally smaller and with enlarged nasal rosettes (Ref. 4449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sulak, K.J., 1990. Notacanthidae. p. 133-135. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4449)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.7 - 13.6, mean 12.9 °C (based on 84 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5161 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00178 (0.00084 - 0.00374), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .