Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 2059); 23°N - 7°S
Africa: Coastal rivers of Kenya from the Mwena River to the lower Athi below Lugard's Falls; also near its mouth, including Lake Chem Chem; Lower and middle Tana River, Northern Uaso Nyiro, Juba system and Webi Shebeli; Nguruman; and Ethiopia (Ref. 5166). Probably also in Lake Momello, south of the Kenya-Tanzania border (Ref. 5166, 118638). Three subspecies are recognized: Oreochromis spilurus niger, Oreochromis spilurus percivali and Oreochromis spilurus spilurus.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2); 16.3 cm (female)
(total): 14 - 17;
soft rays: 9 - 10;
Vertebrae: 28 - 30. Scales on cheek in 2 or 3 series. Genital papilla of male conical or club-shaped, with a sub-terminal pore. Females and immature males have a yellow-buff background color with a series of mid-lateral blotches and a more dorsal parallel series. Mature males golden-yellow; conspicuous bright blue areas on dorsal, anal and pelvic fins; orange or red dorsal lappets.
Feeds on insects, plants and diatoms (Ref. 2).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawns in shallow water with shelving bottom in ponds. Size of first spawning depends on population density (lower at higher densities). Mating pit is the size and shape of a saucer. Eggs probably fertilized before being taken into the mouth by the female, or are fertilized inside the mouth (Ref. 2).
Trewavas, E., 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. British Mus. Nat. Hist., London, UK. 583 p. (Ref. 2)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.00827 - 0.04391), b=3.01 (2.82 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.35 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm<=1: multiple spawning per year).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 40.5 [17.0, 149.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.66 [0.58, 3.92] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.8 [15.1, 18.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.469 [0.199, 1.126] g/100g ; Selenium = 40 [18, 96] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.6 [2.1, 68.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.11 [0.84, 8.02] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.