Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Paraluteres: Greek, para = near + Greek, luteira = untied (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 25 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 24°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa south to Aliwal Shoal, South Africa (Ref. 4421) and east to Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797). Replaced by Paraluteres arquat in the Red Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4421)
soft rays: 22 - 25. Ranges from pale greenish to dirty white in color; blackish-brown saddles above; normally with a round dark blotch above origin of anal fin; soft dorsal and anal fins hyaline, tips dusky; caudal fin yellowish (Ref. 4421).
Inhabit clear lagoon and seaward reefs to at least 25 meters (Ref. 5503). Solitary or in small groups (Ref. 9710). Adults usually in pairs, but sometimes seen in small aggregations (Ref. 48637). Mimic the poisonous puffer, Canthigaster valentini which it greatly resembles. Feed on eggs, gastropods and grazes the substrate (Ref. 5503, 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.2 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 2764 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02089 (0.01006 - 0.04340), b=2.93 (2.75 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 107 [37, 254] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.892 [0.514, 1.866] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.0, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.124 [0.055, 0.254] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.1 [12.6, 61.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 59.6 [17.3, 206.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.69 [0.97, 2.79] mg/100g (wet weight);