Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river. More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 80 m (Ref. 1602), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 24°N - 33°S, 28°E - 112°E
Indian Ocean: Oman and East Africa south to South Africa and east to Christmas Island and Java, Indonesia.
Included in the Parupeneus trifasciatus complex are: Parupeneus trifasciatus from the Indian Ocean; Parupeneus crassilabris from eastern Indian Ocean and the western Pacific, east to Fiji, Tonga, and the Caroline Islands; and Parupeneus insularis from the more eastern islands of Oceania.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
This occasionally schooling species inhabits lagoon and seaward reefs: juveniles on reef flats, adults tend to occur around rocky or coralline areas of high vertical relief. Feeds on crustaceans at daytime and on fishes and crab larvae at night. Also feeds on worms (Ref. 6113). Occurs in 3 color forms. The Indian Ocean form has 2 sharply defined wedge-shaped bars become narrower and sometimes end on the belly. The Indo-Australian form has 3 very distinct dark patches and rows of yellow spots on the sides. The Pacific Plate form has 2 wide bars that extend to the belly (Ref. 37816).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E. and R.F. Myers, 2002. Parupeneus insularis, a new central pacific species of goatfish (Perciformes:Mullidae) of the P. trifasciatus complex. Zool. Stud. 41(4):431-440. (Ref. 45589)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.6 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 1364 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00501 - 0.01259), b=3.19 (3.06 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 38.3 [19.2, 83.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.323 [0.175, 0.672] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [15.1, 21.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.125 [0.071, 0.224] g/100g ; Selenium = 61.2 [27.9, 136.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 242 [39, 960] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.565 [0.339, 1.173] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.