Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Osteoglossiformes
(Bony tongues) > Mormyridae
Etymology: Petrocephalus: Latin, petra = stone + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 23°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060); 3°S - 27°S
East Africa: Rovuma River system including Niassa Reserve, and western confluences to Lake Malawi (Ref. 91771). Following a recent revision of the Petrocephalus catostoma complex (Ref. 91771), unambiquous evidence for the presence of this species in the Bangweulu-Mweru area (and consequently the Congo basin) is still lacking (Ref. 91772).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 4 - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5214)
Occurs in shallow and muddy waters, sheltered bays, in lagoons, and swampy areas; prefers quiet parts of rivers where there is abundant vegetation (Ref. 13337). Forms shoals (Ref. 13337) within quiet reaches of rivers and floodplains, and with other species with identical electric organ discharge (EOD) waveforms (Ref. 10460). Feeds on insects, found on river bed or in marginal vegetation (Ref. 12526), on insect larvae and other invertebrates at night (Ref. 5595). Known to undergo upriver migration (Ref. 13337, 10608) which may well be correlated with breeding (Ref. 13337). Breeds during the rainy season, possibly moving upstream to suitable sites (Ref. 10608). An unconfirmed report claims the males are territorial and build a nest (Ref. 7248). Caught in nets for food (5214). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Kramer, B., R. Bills, P. Skelton and M. Wink, 2012. A critical revision of the churchill snoutfish, genus Petrocephalus Marcusen, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Teleostei: Mormyridae), from southern and eastern Africa, with the recognition of Petrocephalus tanensis, and the description of five new species. Journal of Natural History 46(35-36):2179-2258. (Ref. 91771)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00757 - 0.02516), b=2.81 (2.66 - 2.96), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.38 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 116).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .