Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Lophiiformes
(Anglerfishes) > Antennariidae
(Frogfishes) > Antennariinae
Etymology: Antennarius: From Latin, antenna, antemna = sensory organ (Ref. 45335). More on author: Shaw.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 219 m (Ref. 9710), usually - 40 m (Ref. 5288). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 43°N - 50°S, 88°W - 154°W (Ref. 57378)
Eastern Atlantic: off the African coast, from Senegal to Southwest Africa, with a single record from St. Helena. Western Atlantic: off the coast of New Jersey (USA), Bermuda, Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico and throughout the island groups of the Caribbean to the southernmost coast of Brazil. Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and the East African coast to the Society and Hawaiian islands, north to Japan, south to Australia and New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3585); max. published weight: 32.90 g (Ref. 118626)
soft rays: 7. Diagnosis: body short and globose; mouth large with many small, villiform teeth; skin rough, covered with bifurcate dermal spinules; pectoral-fin lobes attached to sides of body; illicium at most as long as second dorsal-fin spine; head, body and fins entirely covered with rough, parallel, dark streaks (Ref. 57225).
Inhabit rocky and coral reefs, on rocks, sand or rubble (Ref. 9710). Found in weedy estuaries along the east coast of southern Africa (Ref. 4113). Occurring in marine or brackish waters (Ref. 57225). In the Atlantic, it is found at an average depth of 40 m (Ref. 5288). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Observed to inflate itself greatly like the puffers (Ref. 5521). Oviparous. Males have more intense coloration and extended cutaneous appendages than females (Ref. 205). Eggs are bound in ribbon-like sheath or mass of gelatinous mucus called 'egg raft' or 'veil' (Ref. 6773).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous. Males have more intense coloration and extended cutaneous appendages than females (Ref. 205). Eggs are bound in ribbon-like sheath or mass of gelatinous mucus called 'egg raft' or 'veil' (Ref. 6773).
Pietsch, T.W. and D.B. Grobecker, 1987. Frogfishes of the world. Systematics, zoogeography, and behavioral ecology. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 420 p. (Ref. 6773)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.2 - 28.6, mean 27 °C (based on 287 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec = 73,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 43.4 [18.2, 110.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.49, 2.51] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.3, 21.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.447 [0.132, 1.349] g/100g ; Selenium = 11.1 [3.5, 32.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 202 [37, 1,047] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.951 [0.482, 1.949] mg/100g (wet weight);