Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Temperate; 4°C - 20°C (Ref. 13614); 47°N - 41°N, 32°E - 42°E
Europe: Azov and northern Black Sea basins from Bulgaria to eastern Crimea; in freshwater, found only in Danube delta.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13614)
This species is distinguished from other related species in the Black Sea basin by the following characters: pelvic disc 80-100% of distance between its origin and anus; cycloid scales completely cover predorsal area and nape; pelvic disc fraenum with angular lobes, fraenum length 1/6-1/2 of its width at base; scales in midlateral series 58-70 + 2-4; snout length 1.3-1.5 times in eye diameter; first branched ray of second dorsal about as long as penultimate ray; posterior part of first dorsal without black spot (Ref. 59043).
Rarely enters freshwaters (Ref. 26334). Inhabits inshore habitats, brackish lagoons, estuaries and lower part of large rivers; usually associated with rock bottom or sunken trees. Spawns at 2 years, from December to April where females can repeat spawning during a season. Feeds mostly on crustaceans (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Reshetnikov, Y.S., N.G. Bogutskaya, E.D. Vasil'eva, E.A. Dorofeeva, A.M. Naseka, O.A. Popova, K.A. Savvaitova, V.G. Sideleva and L.I. Sokolov, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. J. Ichthyol. 37(9):687-736. (Ref. 26334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00454 - 0.02011), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .